Indiana is home to numerous non-venomous snakes. The state is also home to a few venomous species.
Many types of snakes in Indiana are listed as endangered. A diminishing natural habitat as well as capturing the species for the snake pet trade are among the reasons for the diminishing snake numbers across the state.
Indiana is also home to terrestrial, aquatic, fossorial, and arboreal snakes.
Table of Contents
Are There Venomous Snakes in Indiana?
While most snakes in Indiana are non-venomous, the following native species are highly venomous.
- Eastern Copperhead
- Timber Rattlesnake
These are some of the most venomous species in the US that are still found in Indiana.
Most types of venomous snakes in Indiana are listed as endangered as humans kill them or because they face a diminishing habitat.
While rarely lethal, the bite of these venomous snakes may lead to serious pain, hospitalization, permanent scars, and even amputation.
Snakes in Indiana
Here are the types of snakes found in Indiana.
1. Midland Water Snake
Midland Water Snakes (Nerodia sipedon pleuralis) are a common sight in Indiana. This snake species has an aquatic nature and a distinct dark body.
These snakes grow to a maximum size of 51 inches with the average snake measuring around 40 inches across the state.
Dark square-shaped blotches help identify the Midland Water Snake.
This non-venomous snake lives next to freshwater sources in the state.
Areas around slow-moving and still water such as ponds and small streams attract the snake. It’s here that it can feed on fish and frogs.
Midland Water Snakes living in aquatic areas close to woodlands also feed on the salamander.
This snake is known for having strong dorsal keeling, similar to other species of its natricinae genus.
2. Northern Water Snake
Also known as The Banded Water Snake, the Northern Water Snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) is a species characterized by a bright brown-yellow body with dark brown crossbands.
This species grows to a length of at least a few feet and it survives for a year in the wilderness if not killed by predators or humans.
Northern Water Snakes are a specie that lives close to ponds and streams. Sometimes found in marshes, the snake is adapted to eating the type of prey it finds next to water or in water.
Fish and crayfish are the main types of aquatic prey in clean unpolluted water.
This species is also known for consuming birds and invertebrates as an adult.
3. Chicago Garter Snake
Chicago Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis semifasciatus) are small to medium-sized species that grow up to a maximum recorded length of 39 inches.
This is a species of Northern Garter Snake adapted to living in areas with cold winters. It even comes out on sunny winter days looking to warm up in direct sunlight.
Chicago Garter snakes live next to the water and eat fish as adults.
Young Chicago Garter Snakes eat earthworms and slugs. Many young snakes don’t survive predation as their habitat close to water also attracts other predators such as owls.
4. Eastern Garter Snake
Eastern Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis) are a medium to large-size species in Indiana.
This species lives both in dry and humid habitats, with a preference for high-humidity areas.
It may be found in areas such as the edges of woodlands but it also lives next to streams.
Many adult Eastern Garter Snakes don’t grow longer than 26 inches across the state.
Areas with low dense vegetation tend to attract the most Eastern Garter Snakes as they also offer plenty of food.
Toads and frogs are some of the snake’s favorite species in humid habitats.
Earthworms are also common prey for the young Eastern Garter Snake.
This species is non-venomous to humans and mildly venomous to small prey such as rodents and frogs.
5. Gray Ratsnake
Gray Ratsnakes (Pantherophis spiloides) are among the largest species in Indiana. These snakes grow to varying lengths that can measure anywhere between 3 and 6 feet.
Hardwood forests and streams with plenty of trees on the side in Southern parts of Indiana are the home of this species.
A good climbing snake, Gray Ratsnakes have access to multiple types of prey, including birds and bird eggs from tree nests.
Young Gray Ratsnakes aren’t as good climbers and they also have a different diet as a result.
They only eat frogs and small lizards.
6. Black Ratsnake
Black Ratsnakes (Pantherophis obsoletus) are also a species found near woodlands. Deciduous trees such as oaks create the native habitat for Black Ratsnakes in Indiana.
An avid swimmer, this snake species is also found around ponds and streams next to woodlands.
They climb trees next to water or with branches overhanging the water.
Black Ratsnakes aren’t venomous but they can bite.
This is a species that uses constriction to overpower its predators. It suffocates its prey until it stops regular blood flow before swallowing it.
Black Ratsnakes are some of the longest-lifespan species in the state as they can live up to 15 years.
7. Northern Brown Snake
Northern Brown Snakes (Storeria dekayi dekayi) are a common native species of small snakes. This snake can be confused with other short brown snakes such as Red-bellied snakes.
Northern Brown Snakes have a light ventral color and not a red ventral color, on the other hand.
A small species, Northern Brown Snakes may only grow to a size of 6-7 inches.
They can be spotted under leaf litter in woodlands or vegetation in ditches along roads.
Female Northern Brown Snakes give birth to live young once they reach the minimum age of 2.
Up to 31 live young are born from one mated female in the summer.
8. Midland Brown Snake
Midland Brown Snakes (Toreria dekayi wrightorum) have a distinct brown color with gray undertones on the sides and a darker brown dorsal color.
This snake also features dark brown lateral spots.
Swamps are among the most common areas this snake is seen in.
A species that also live in swamps with a similar size and similar coloring is The Cottonmouth Snake, often taken as the Midland Brown Snake.
A non-venomous species, the Midland Brown Snake is the Northern variant of Dekay’s Brown Snake, a native North American species known for eating slugs and snails.
This species generally overwinters during the cold Northern winter months but it may come out at night to look for food on warmer nights.
9. Ring-necked Snake
As Mildand Brown Snakes, Ring-necked Snakes (Diadophis punctatus) are also nocturnal.
This snake is among the smaller species in Indiana. It lives in moist areas where there’s loose soil to move around.
These habitat preferences are only seen on Ring-necked Snakes in Northern states such as Indiana as they can be an adaptive species to arid habitats in Southern states.
As its name suggests, this small snake species shows a colorful contrasting neckband for easy identification. This neckband can be yellow, red, or orange.
Only growing to a size of up to a few inches, this small snake is limited in its diet to earthworms and other soft-bodied similarly-sized prey such as slugs.
While not a venomous snake, this species has venomous saliva it uses against small prey, together with predatory techniques such as constriction.
10. Blue Racer
Blue Racers (Coluber constrictor foxii) are also known as Eastern Racer Snakes across the state.
This is a species with hints of blue on the sides, dark gray dorsal coloring, and white or cream ventral coloring.
Blue Racer snakes are a non-venomous species that prefer open fields or partly open fields as their habitat.
Diurnal by nature, the species is considered endangered just North of the state.
In Indiana, the species is stable and one of the known predators of rats and other small snakes.
The open habitat of this species means other predators can also easily spot it when moving.
Owls and foxes are some of the most common predators of young Blue Racers.
11. Southern Black Racer
These black snakes (Coluber constrictor priapus) are also diurnal, similar to Blue Racers.
While a non-venomous species in Indiana, Southern Black Racers are known for having aggressive behavior.
Even handling this snake isn’t recommended as it bites numerous times.
Its painful bite also makes the species a poor pet snake.
Southern Black Racers eat different types of field vertebrates and invertebrates.
These snakes are carnivores. They like to eat rats, mice, and frogs.
This type of snake is a different type of constrictor that pushes its preferred prey to the ground to the point of suffocation instead of wrapping itself around the prey for constriction.
12. Red Milk Snake
Red Milk Snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum syspila) are a common species in the state and elsewhere around it.
A native species in North America, Red Milk Snakes are characterized by their red saddled or brown saddles on a white, gray, or cream base color.
This contrasting species stands out immediately as its red saddles have black borders.
Red Milk Snakes are small to medium-sized. While some of the largest specimens can grow past the 50-inch mark, this species rarely measures more than 30 inches in real-world conditions.
A non-venomous species, Red Milk Snakes are true constrictors.
They eat mice and lizards (preferably lizards), but only after suffocating them by coiling their bodies around the prey.
13. Eastern Milk Snake
Eastern Milk Snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum) are a subspecies of the native Milk Snake.
These Milk Snake variations are native to Indiana and may come in other colors such as the red saddle-specific coloring of the Milk Snake.
Eastern Milk Snakes may be gray or gray-brown with dark brown saddles that also show black borders.
Eastern Milk Snakes aren’t venomous, just like Milk Snakes.
This doesn’t mean the species isn’t aggressive as it attempts to bite at times.
The snake typically hisses and moves its tail just before it bites.
Size-wise, Eastern Milksnakes also grow up to 36 inches with only extreme specimens growing larger.
Young Eastern Milksnakes are predated by raccoons and hawks.
14. Eastern Hognose Snake
Eastern Hognose Snakes (Heterodon platirhinos) are among the species with mild-venomous status in Indiana.
These snakes are considered non-venomous but they have venomous saliva which is similar to the saliva of certain mildly-venomous amphibians.
People don’t react to these venoms unless there’s a certain type of allergic reaction to them. In this case, swollen skin is expected in the area of the bite.
Eastern Hognose Snakes use their venomous saliva against small prey.
One of the reasons some may assume this snake is venomous is due to the positioning of its rear fangs on the upper jaw.
This has led to multiple nicknames such as The Black Viper Snake or Poison Viper. These nicknames aren’t elusive in terms of their venomous snake status.
Queensnakes (Regina septemvittata) are a non-venomous species with specialized feeding. No other snake species in Indiana is known to prefer a single type of prey such as Queensnakes.
These snakes only eat crayfish. Fresh crayfish that has just molted is their preferred food due to the certain nutrients this phase in their life comes with.
Queensnakes are sensitive to changes in water purity, just as crayfish.
These snakes may also look for other types of food in extreme hunger, mainly other types of fish.
Wintertime comes with a brumation period for Queensnakes. This is a time the snake has no activity.
Queensnake brumation is most common in areas around water. These are sheltered out-of-sight places.
16. Rough Greensnake
Rough Greensnakes (Opheodrys aestivus) are some of the smallest species of insectivore snakes in the state.
They have a bright green uniform dorsal color, similar to vegetation. A light cream or white underbelly is specific to this contrasting snake.
Rough Greensnakes look for food both on the ground and on trees.
They are specifically known for feeding on spiders, ants, and small bugs.
Rough Greensnakes may also climb trees for food. They prefer not to climb every day since this exposes them to potential predators as well.
Since they climb trees, Rough Greensnakes are exposed to birds as their most common predator.
This snake may bite when handled, but this is rare. Their bites aren’t painful or venomous.
17. Eastern Worm Snake
Eastern Worm Snakes (Carphophis amoenus) are among the few species in Indiana which may surface in gardens.
This is a small fossorial snake that grows to 10-11 inches with the largest specimen measuring only 13 inches.
A brown or black dorsal color and a red ventral color are specific to this snake.
You can find the East Worm Snake prefers habitats next to water, but this snake is highly secretive even when it’s diurnal.
The fossorial species freely move through the loose ground for food. It only covers short distances each day as a result.
Eastern Worm Snakes are some of the snakes humans have a high impact on here.
They can suffer and even die from insecticide use in their habitat. Some Eastern Worm Snakes are even killed by traffic on roads at night.
18. Black Kingsnake
Black Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis nigra) are among the few black species across the state.
Adult Black Kingsnakes have a base black color with yellow scales. Juveniles lack these yellow scales or yellow bands across the dorsal side.
Other small coloring differences can also be noted on some juvenile Black Kingsnakes.
For example, they might also show gray scales on the sides which are absent from adults.
The species is also among the larger types in Indiana as it grows to a size of at least 50 inches.
Some of the largest Black Kingsnakes even reach a size of 71 inches.
Adult males tend to be a bit longer than females.
19. Eastern Copperhead
Eastern Copperhead snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix) are native to Indiana. This snake species identifies itself by freezing when spotted by humans.
Eastern Copperheads rely on their camouflaging brown or brown-red coloring to hide in plain sight.
This snake is not aggressive at first but bites are still reported. While not fatal, venomous Eastern Copperhead bites routinely require medical attention.
Compared to other venomous species, Eastern Copperheads are considered a lesser concern but they can still inject dangerous venom with their bites.
Some Eastern Copperhead bites aren’t backed by venom injection.
As a small snake, Eastern Copperheads eat different types of small vertebrates and invertebrates.
Only found in Southern Indiana, these snakes are generally nocturnal, especially in warm summers.
They can turn diurnal in the fall.
20. Eastern Ribbon Snake
Eastern Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis saurita sauritus) are among the smaller species that live next to the water in the state.
This snake barely reaches a size of 30 inches. Males are longer than females but the female Eastern Ribbon Snake has a wider body than the male.
Both males and females have larger heads which makes it easier for them to swallow prey.
Found around water sources such as ponds and streams, these snakes have a base brown color with cream stripes that run from the head to the tip of the tail.
A non-venomous species, Eastern Ribbon Snakes prefer not to engage when spotting people.
They either stay still or move slowly into vegetation making the most of their camouflaging colors.
These snakes give birth to live young after at least 3 years, the time it takes for females to reach sexual maturity.
21. Northern Ribbon Snake
This brown snake with yellow stripes (Thamnophis saurita septentrionalis) is found in areas next to water in the state.
Only remaining in a few habitats, the species is a ground-dweller in marshes and around streams.
It has a small size with reduced sizing variation as an adult. It grows to a size between 20 and 26 inches and it can be characterized as a slim body species.
Both young and adult snakes can swim. Juveniles aren’t as skilled and they prefer to eat small frogs and invertebrates.
You can identify juveniles by their smaller bodies which measure anywhere between 9 and 20 inches.
Adult Northern Ribbon Snakes are very good swimmers which means they also get to eat fish, together with frogs, tadpoles, and toads.
Gravid Northern Ribbon Snakes can be seen in the summer, a period they use to mate and give birth to live young snakes.
22. Gopher Snake
Gray and brown colors are specific to the dorsal side of this large snake (Pituophis catenifer). Gopher snakes have unique yellow ventral coloring with brown blotches.
This snake can be confused with Prairie snakes due to their dorsal coloring as well as with venomous rattlesnakes without a rattle.
Similarities to rattlesnakes also include shaking its tail to mimic a venomous species.
Gopher Snakes use different methods to keep predators away including faking a bite.
They budge prey and even people with closed mouths.
While they can mimic the behavior and even coloring of rattlesnakes, Gopher Snakes rarely share their habitat with venomous rattlesnakes.
Gopher Snakes are also some of the longest-living species in Indiana. They survive at least 15 years with sufficient food.
23. Timber Rattlesnake
Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) are one of the 4 venomous species in Indiana.
There are only 100 Timber Rattlesnakes found in the state, mainly in The Brown County State Park.
They are known as some of the most venomous snakes in the US and one of the most dangerous species in Indiana.
This snake species has a gray or brown base color contrasted by brown or black crossbands.
Small animals are part of Timber Rattlesnakes’ typical diets.
Birds and rodents are some of their most common prey.
It can eat prey found on the ground but it may also try to locate birds or squirrels in trees.
Small diet differences are seen on smaller juvenile Timber Rattlesnakes.
Juveniles can only catch small prey such as shrews.
24. Red-bellied Snake
Red-bellied Snakes (Storeria occipitomaculata) are named after the red ventral color of the species.
This is one of the smaller snake species found on grounds of Indiana as a fossorial snake.
Red-bellied Snakes measure 4 inches as juveniles and grow to 10 inches.
Most Red-bellied Snakes are tied to woodlands, areas with higher natural humidity.
This is also a habitat slug are found in. Red-bellied Snakes are rely seen out on rocks or limestone as they still hide under ground-level leaves while out of the ground.
Ground humidity remains a constant habitat requirement for Red-bellied Snakes. This species moves with moisture which means it always escapes to moist lands from drying areas.
25. Smooth Earthsnake
Smooth Earthsnakes (Virginia valeriae) are among the most common fossorial smooth species in the state.
Unlike other Brown Snakes, Smooth Earthsnakes have smooth scales which inspire their name.
This species has a reduced size growing to a maximum of 10 inches.
Smooth Earthsnakes are a species that can be common in humid areas of woodlands and uncommon in other areas.
Smooth Earthsnakes are dominated by gray and light brown colors.
One small difference between juvenile and Smooth Earthsnakes is visible in coloring. Juveniles are patterned.
26. Kirtland’s Snake
Kirtland’s Snake (Clonophis kirtlandii) is a gray species with black dorsal spots.
This snake is born measuring 6 inches in groups of up to 22 in late summer.
Snakes of this genus are born and live in humid habitats across the state. Woodlands are its favorite.
Marshes and swamps next to woodlands create the ideal habitat for the snake and its common prey.
Salamanders and toads are some of the typical humid-habitat prey of Kirtland’s Snake.
Minnows, a type of freshwater fish is also eaten by adult Kirtland’s Snake.
27. Eastern Foxsnake
A gray and dark gray snake, this species (Pantherophis vulpinus) stands out with a checkerboard-style ventral coloring.
This snake bears similarities to the Western Foxsnake and it can be found in prairies and around woodlands.
Eastern Foxsnakes eat small animals. Mice, rabbits, and birds are among the prey they consume.
Constriction is possible for some of the larger prey this snake eats.
Some people see Eastern Foxsnakes as beneficial to the ecosystem as they eat rodents impacting farms.
At the same time, these snakes can be vectors of diseases which means their status is uncertain in populated areas or on crops.
28. Western Fox Snake
The habitat of Western Fox Snakes (Pantherophis ramspotti) almost overlaps the habitat of their Eastern counterpart in the state.
This is also a non-venomous species found in humid and dry habitats. Ares such as crops and prairies or open fields next to woodlands attract these snakes.
These snakes are found on farms and in suburban areas as they aren’t afraid of humans or domesticated animals.
Western Fox Snakes eat animals such as mice and rabbits, with a lesser preference for frogs.
Like other snakes in Indiana, Western Fox Snakes may attempt to mimic the behavior of rattlesnakes to appear venomous and dangerous.
Mimicry techniques involve tail rattling.
This type of mimicry is typically seen when the snake is facing a predator or when surprised by humans.
29. Plain-bellied Watersnake
This colubrid aquatic snake (Nerodia erythrogaster) is found across multiple habitats near freshwater.
Rivers and areas next to rivers such as floodplains and old floodplains are the natural habitats of the species.
A gray or dark olive-green color is specific to the Plain-bellied Watersnake.
A yellow ventral color and a rare red ventral color contrast the dark dorsal side of this species.
This species is named after its uniform yellow ventral color.
While a successful predator, Plain-bellied Watersnakes are also eaten by species that share their habitat.
Cottonmouth snakes and fish such as bass eat juvenile Plain-bellied Watersnakes.
This is one of the few snakes which moves to dryland whenever it senses aquatic predators nearby.
30. Prairie Kingsnake
Some of the common snakes in the state that other species are confused with include the Prairie Kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster).
As Plain-bellied Watersnakes, Prairies Kingsnakes have yellow ventral coloring.
This color is what separates the species from other similar snakes that have gray or brown dorsal coloring with blotching.
You can sometimes find Prairies Kingnsnakes in open areas next to woodlands. Some proximity to a water source is often a requirement in their habitat.
This species is sometimes confused with rattlesnakes in the state through its tail rattling. This is a mimicry technique adopted by the species which doesn’t share its habitat with rattlesnakes.
Prairie Kingsnakes are a medium-sized species that grows to an average 35-inch size.
These snakes are docile but they may bite when handled roughly.
31. Western Ribbon Snake
Western Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis proximus) are one of the garter species of Indiana.
This snake is differentiated through coloring as it’s among the few snakes in the state to have a green-white ventral color.
Its ventral color can also be a more common yellow-to-white nuance.
The snake has distinct yellow stripes along its body as well.
Western Ribbon snakes are highly variable in their adult size.
More than other snakes in the state, this species can be small or large. It grows to 50 inches but it can also remain small at 20 inches as an adult.
32. Plains Garter Snake
Streams and ponds offer the vegetation and prey the Plains Garter Snake (Thamnophis radix) needs to survive and thrive.
A combination of orange and yellow stripes on a dark green body is what helps identify this species.
Seen on prairies and even in tall vegetation next to suburban areas, the Plains Garter Snake is a long-living species that also comes out in the winter.
They sometimes come out in open areas with short vegetation to bask in the sun on warm winter days.
Plains Garter Snakes are also among the first species to make their appearance as soon as freezing temperatures rise in the spring.
It has a long active season in the state which may last until November.
Plains Garter Snakes share their habitat with the Common Garter Snake.
33. Smooth Greensnake
The Smooth Greensanke (Opheodrys vernalis) is the second most common uniform green snake in Indiana.
Smooth scales set the species apart, as its name implies.
This species makes the most of its meadows, prairies, and marshes as habitats. It can enter a hibernation-like state in animal burrows as well as in ant mounds.
Smooth Greensnakes have a green dorsal color and yellow ventral coloring which is typically not seen.
It spends most of its time in areas with dense vegetation to leverage its camouflaging green color.
A docile species, the Smooth Greensnake can be handled with care.
This snake will attempt to flee into vegetation whenever seeing humans.
Smooth Greensnakes can sometimes be spotted trying to swallow large prey. This species is among the Indiana snakes that can eat large prey.
Venomous Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) snakes are endangered in Indiana. They have been extirpated from nearby states.
Rare in the state, Massasauga snakes are only found in remote areas in Northern Indiana.
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore areas are among the few habitats where this species still lives today.
The venom of the species is highly dangerous to humans. It affects regular blood flow and it may be putting your life in danger in high quantities.
The diet of the species has small differences depending on its age.
Juvenile Massasauga snakes feed on small reptiles such as lizards and insects.
As the snakes mature, they start to eat larger prey. Adult Massasauga snakes eat rodents and birds.
You can identify this species by its base gray color with brown blotching. Its gray-dominant color also inspires its local names around the state such as The Gray Rattlesnake or The Little Gray Rattlesnake.
35. Diamondback Watersnake
Diamondback Watersnakes (Nerodia rhombifer) have a dark green or green-olive color with black crossbands and a yellow underbelly.
As its name implies, this is an aquatic snake species found in moist areas around water in a few spots across the state.
The dark coloring of the species and its aquatic environment often make some people confuse it with venomous Cottonmouth snakes.
Diamondback Watersnakes grow to an average size of 35 inches with only larger specimens reaching 40 inches.
Competition for food is intense as the Diamondback Watersnake shares its habitat with other aquatic species.
36. Butler’s Gartersnake
Butler’s Gartersnakes (Thamnophis butleri) are an endangered native species in Indiana.
One of the multiple garter snakes in the state, Butler’s Gartersnakes have cream and yellow stripes that run from the head to the tip of the tail contrasting its body.
This species is only found in moist areas with tall grass.
While it doesn’t stand out in coloring, the snake is smaller than other species in a moist habitat.
It grows to a size between 15 and 20 inches and it remains one of the garter snakes with a small head which means it can only eat salamanders and leeches.
While this snake lives in areas with tall grass around water, it’s also found in suburban areas.
37. Red-Bellied Mudsnake
Red-bellied Mudsnakes (Farancia abacura) are a native species still present in the state, but in low numbers.
This species only lives in Knox County. Even here, it’s estimated its population is down considerably.
This species has black dorsal coloring. Its ventral color is a combination of red and black bands.
Red-bellied Mudsnakes live in swamps and are rarely seen outside this high-humidity habitat.
Some of their preferred lizards and fish are also here. This species can swim and it eats fish as an adult.
Only present in Southwestern parts of the stated, Red-bellied Mudsnakes are some of the few remaining species living in swamps and cypress swamps that grow to a large size.
These snakes can reach sizes of up to 6 feet.
As Red-Bellied Mudsnakes, Scarletsnakes (Cemophora coccinea) are also endangered in Indiana.
This is a red snake species with white crossbands that feature contrasting black borders.
Snakes of this family are only seen during the summer, but in low numbers given they are nocturnal.
Spending most months hiding, this is a species that eats rodents, birds, and eggs.
Only a few Scarletsnakes survive in Indiana given the species faces considerable habitat loss.
The capturing of the species for its value in the snake pet industry also sees is at as an endangered snake in the state.
39. Southeastern Crowned Snake
Southeastern Crowned Snakes (Tantilla coronata) are a species of small brown snakes that live in the ground.
These fossorial snakes are among the few insectivores in Indiana as they only eat insects and bugs due to their small size and small head.
Brown coloring is specific to the dorsal side of the species which also has light brown ventral coloring.
Dark brown to black coloring is seen on the head of the snake.
This species becomes active in late spring when it mates. Much of its life is secretive to humans as it lives underground.
Small groups of up to 4 eggs are laid by mated females.
Rarely seen above the ground, mainly hiding under leaves, this species can be overlooked due to its small size.
An adult Southern Crowned Snake can measure 5 to 9 inches as an adult.
Southern Indiana marks the Northern limit of the US habitat of Cottonmouth snakes (Agkistrodon piscivorus).
These are some of the most venomous snakes in the state and one of the feared aquatic species in Indiana.
This species is known as endangered in Indiana.
Cytotoxic venom is specific to this species. This is a type of venom that destroys the bitten tissue.
This is one of the most toxic venoms humans can face. It can lead to permanent scars in the bitten area.
While death following Cottonmouth snake bites is rare, its cytotoxic venom can require amputation if a sufficient amount of venom is injected with the bite.
You can identify Cottonmouth snakes by their base brown, gray, or yellow color with dark brown dorsal blotches.
A dark morph of Northern Cottonmouth is specific to Indiana.
These snakes eat rodents and different other types of prey. They are among the few species in the state that also eat carrion.